"The World and Japan" Database (Project Leader: TANAKA Akihiko)
Database of Japanese Politics and International Relations
National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies (GRIPS); Institute for Advanced Studies on Asia (IASA), The University of Tokyo

[Title] Japan-EU Joint Declaration on Disarmament and Non-proliferation, 13th Japan-EU Summit

[Place] Tokyo
[Date] 22 June, 2004
[Source] The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan
[Full text]

The proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and their means of delivery poses a serious threat to the peace and stability of the international community. In particular, the possibility of the proliferation of WMD, and their means of delivery as well as related materials and technology, to terrorists and other non-state actors adds a new dimension to this threat. Non proliferation, disarmament, and arms control measures can make an essential contribution to the fight against terrorism.

The illicit trade related to WMD and in particular in highly sensitive nuclear equipment and technology, the reality of which became clear with the revelation of the Khan network, is a matter of serious concern for Japan and the European Union. The international community must be united in its endeavor to close existing loopholes in order to strengthen the non-proliferation regimes. The active and positive engagement and cooperation of as many countries as possible are indispensable in this regard. We must reinforce our efforts to tackle illicit trafficking in WMD and their means of delivery and their procurement network. We will address the issue of the involvement of non-state actors in this field.

At the same time, continuous efforts must be made to undertake measures to further advance disarmament, including of nuclear weapons, in order to build a truly peaceful and secure world.

Positive and active efforts must also be made to strengthen controls over conventional weapons, which cause damage, injury, and death in many countries and threaten to destabilize the international community.

Guided by the common concern and aims described above, we will work together to achieve our common goals of disarmament and non-proliferation, collectively and individually through the identification of concrete measures, including the following:

a) Recognizing each other as a major partner in the area of disarmament and non-proliferation, we will deepen our cooperation in these pursuits and promote close policy dialogues at opportunities presented by the major international conferences and other fora.

b) We will reaffirm our commitment to the 2001 Japan- EU Action Plan and the 2002 Joint Press Statement, which call for cooperation on the issue of disarmament and non-proliferation on the basis of mutual understanding of each other's security concerns.

c) We reaffirm our commitment to the international treaty system and will promote the universalization, implementation, and strengthening of the treaties and norms in the area of disarmament and non-proliferation, such as the NPT, BTWC, CWC, CTBT, CCW, MBT, HCOC, and the IAEA Comprehensive Safeguard Agreements and Additional Protocols.*1*

d) We will promote dialogue and cooperation with other countries for disarmament and non-proliferation and will intensify regional activities to this end. Through this process, we will establish "best practices" to be followed by other regions and countries.

e) We reaffirm our readiness to provide concrete assistance, as the need arises, to countries to enable them to fully implement the requirements and obligations under the relevant disarmament and non-proliferation treaties, as well as to help them upgrade their technical capacities.

f) We will work together to ensure strict compliance with the obligations under disarmament and non-proliferation treaties. We stress our determination to support international institutions charged with the verification and upholding of compliance with these treaties and agreements.

g) We consider it of critical importance to duly address the root causes underlying proliferation problems, while reaffirming that no cause should be construed as legitimizing WMD proliferation. In this regard, we reaffirm the importance of combined political and diplomatic efforts in support of shared non-proliferation objectives.

h) Fully aware that disarmament and non-proliferation education is an effective means for promoting both aims, we will place great importance on efforts related to such education.

i) We identified priority areas for specific co-operation in the list attached hereto. This list will be revised, as necessary, through consultations at the Japan-EU Troika WG or other designated channel.

Priority areas for specific cooperation

With respect of paragraph (i) in the Joint Declaration, the priority areas for specific cooperation are identified as follows.

Nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation

- Early entry into force of the CTBT

- Early commencement of negotiations on the Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty

- Universalization of the IAEA Comprehensive Safeguard Agreements and Additional Protocols

Biological and chemical weapons

- Universalization of the BTWC and strengthening of the functioning of the BTWC through active participation in the BTWC programme of work

- Universalization of the CWC and cooperating to help strengthen national implementation of the Convention


- Universalization of the HCOC

Export control and other non-proliferation measures

- Cooperation in export controls regimes

- Cooperation with like-minded partners to strengthen export controls

- Controls on the export of weapons with a view to avoiding the risk that they could fall into the hands of terrorists

- Assistance to third countries in need of technical assistance in the field of export controls

- Strengthening of law enforcement capabilities to prevent weapons proliferation and of regional outreach efforts to enhance non-proliferation mechanisms

- Cooperation in the context of the Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI)

Conventional weapons

- Acceleration of the implementation of the UN Small Arms Action Plan and assistance by Japan and the EU to this end

- Expansion of the number of countries adhering to the UN Register of Conventional Arms

- Sustaining international political will and financial assistance for mine action including victim assistance in mine affected countries

- Promotion of universal adherence to the principles and goals of the Mine Ban Treaty

Assistance to the countries in need

- Promotion of capacity building assistance for the establishment of legal systems and the strengthening of law enforcement in countries needing such assistance to ensure the domestic implementation of treaties related to disarmament and non-proliferation as well as of the UN Security Council Resolutions 1540

- Enhanced collaboration with those countries which commit to dismantle their WMD, their means of delivery and related arsenals and the provision of necessary assistance to that end

Non-compliance with the obligations under disarmament and non-proliferation treaties

- Cooperation for the peaceful resolution of non-compliance cases

- Working jointly to strengthen the role of the Security Council with respect to non-compliance issues


- Intensification of consultation to resolve the current CD stalemate

- Promotion of disarmament and non-proliferation education

- Common assessment of global proliferation threats

*1* Abbreviation

NPT: Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

BTWC: Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction

CWC: Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction

CTBT: Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

CCW: Convention on Prohibition or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects

MBT: Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and On Their Destruction

HCOC: Hague Code of Conduct against Ballistic Missile Proliferation