"The World and Japan" Database (Project Leader: TANAKA Akihiko)
Database of Japanese Politics and International Relations
National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies (GRIPS); Institute for Advanced Studies on Asia (IASA), The University of Tokyo

[Title] The Japan-Manchukuo Protocal

[Place] Hsinking
[Date] September 15, 1932
[Source] Dainiji Sekaisennsou kankei Joyakusyu, pp.11-12.
[Full text]


Whereas Japan has recognized the fact that Manchoukuo, in accordance with the free will of its inhabitants, has organized and established itself as an independent State; and

Whereas Manchoukuo has declared its intention of abiding by all international engagements entered Into by China in so far as they are applicable to Manchoukuo;

Now the Governments of Japan and Manchoukuo have, for the purpose of establishing a perpetual relationship of good neighbourhood between Japan and Manchoukuo, each respecting the territorial rights of the other, and also in order to secure the peace of the Far East, agreed as follows:—

1. Manchoukuo shall confirm and respect, in so far as no agreement to the contrary shall be made between Japan and Manchoukuo in the future, all rights and interests possessed by Japan or her subjects within the territory of Manchoukuo by virtue of Sino-Japanese treaties, agreements or other arrangements or of Sino-Japanese contracts, private as well as public;

2. Japan and Manchoukuo, recognizing that any threat to the territory or to the peace and order of either of the High Contracting Parties constitutes at the same time a threat to the safety and existence of the other, agree to cooperate in the maintenance of their national security; it being understood that such Japanese forces as may be necessary for this purpose shall be stationed in Manchouhuo.

The present Protocol shall come into effect from the date of its signature.

The present Protocol has been drawn up in Japanese and Chinese, two identical copies being made in each language. Should any difference arise in regard to interpretation between the Japanese and the Chinese texts, the Japanese text shall prevail.

In witness whereof the undersigned, duly authorized by their respective Governments, have signed the present Protocol and have affixed their seals thereto.

Done at Hsinking, this fifteenth day of the Ninth month of the Seventh year of Showa, corresponding to the fifteenth day of the Ninth month of the First year of Ta-tung.


Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of His Majesty the Emperor of Japan.


Prime Minister of Manchoukuo.